The Republic of Singapore is a sovereign city-state in Southeast Asia. As a small, low-lying city-state, Singapore is facing several outstanding concerns of climate change, including rising sea level, extreme weather, water vulnerability, food security, and public health.

For instance, rainfall has become more intense in the recent years. In 2001, the first recorded cyclone near the equator swept north of Singapore causing major flooding. As 30% of Singapore’s surface is less than 5m above the mean sea level, the loss of coastal land to flooding will be imminent if the sea level were to rise to 5m.

Also, Singapore is located in a tropical region where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Most cases of vector-borne diseases, like dengue, are observed during the warmer periods of the year. Over 10,000 dengue cases have been reported in Singapore since the beginning of 2016.

A shift to renewable energy

Singapore contributes up to around 0.11% of global CO2 emissions. In 2015, it ranked as high as 26th of 142 countries in terms of emissions per capita, largely due to its small size and high population density.

Power generation is the number one emission source in Singapore. Unfortunately, with relatively flat land, low wind speeds and lack of geothermal resources, Singapore has limited access to alternative energy options. Therefore, in order to diversify its energy mix, Singapore has significantly expanded its natural gas and solar energy capacity in recent years. Since 2000, Singapore has increased the share of natural gas used in electricity generation from 19% to 95% at present.

Despite the limited surface area for deploying solar panels, the government has been pressing ahead to promote solar power through the development of an enabling environment. It is estimated that by 2030 the renewable energy could potentially contribute up to 8% of Singapore’s peak electricity demand. And it is possible to have solar electricity contributing up to 30% of Singapore’s total electricity demand in 2050.

Want the know more? Read the full report on climate change in Singapore here.